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Digital Clock On LCD (16x2) PIC16F1937 Used In FlowCode Programming and Simulation

In this sample project we are using FlowCode Simulation Software for Programming and Testing with PIC16F1937.It shows how to use and simulate and program LCD for use in different projects.In this Project we have created digital clock(Using two digit each for seconds minute and hours in 24 Hour format on LCD) on 16x2 Liquid Crystal Display.Varying the delay and write-erase sequence can be manipulated to get desired result.

Here is the Flow code program:
LCD(16x2) Display Related Programs
ADC-Voltage as Float(LCD with PIC16F1937)
ADC-Voltage as String (LCD with PIC16F1937)
ADC Sampling and outputting to a LCD(LCD with PIC16F1937)
Printing Number on 16x2 LCD Display with PIC16F88
Printing and Updating Number on 16x2 LCD Display
Printing a Two line(String) message (LCD 16x2)
Printing a formatted number on ( LCD 16x2 ) Using PIC16F88

LCD (Liquid Crystal Display 16X2):-
Its screen is an electronic display module and find a wide range of applications. A 16x2 LCD display is very basic module and is very…

Photoelectric Effect - High School Physics Tutorial

 Photoelectric Effect-Tutorial

The photoelectric effect is the observation that many metals emit electrons when light shines upon them. Electrons emitted in this manner may be called photo electrons.



Overview of the Photoelectric Effect

The photoelectric effect is studied in part because it can be an introduction to wave-particle duality and quantum mechanics.

As shown in video below,when a surface is exposed to sufficiently energetic electromagnetic energy, light will be absorbed and electrons will be emitted. The threshold frequency is different for different materials.



It is visible light for alkali metals, near-ultraviolet light for other metals, and extreme-ultraviolet radiation for non metals. The photoelectric effect occurs with photons having energies from a few electron volts to over 1 MeV. At the high photon energies comparable to the electron rest energy of 511 keV, Compton scattering may occur pair production may take place at energies over 1.022 MeV.

 

Einstein proposed that light consisted of quanta, which we call photons. He suggested that the energy in each quantum of light was equal to the frequency multiplied by a constant (Planck's constant) and that a photon with a frequency over a certain threshold would have sufficient energy to eject a single electron, producing the photoelectric effect. It turns out that light does not need to be quantized in order to explain the photoelectric effect, but some textbooks persist in saying that the photoelectric effect demonstrates the particle nature of light.

Einstein's Equations for the Photoelectric Effect 


Einstein's interpretation of the photoelectric effect results in equations which are valid for visible and ultraviolet light:


energy of photon = energy needed to remove an electron + kinetic energy of the emitted electron


hν = W + E


where

h is Planck's constant
ν is the frequency of the incident photon
W is the work function, which is the minimum energy required to remove an electron from the surface of a given metal: hν0
E is the maximum kinetic energy of ejected electrons: 1/2 mv2
ν0 is the threshold frequency for the photoelectric effect
m is the rest mass of the ejected electron
v is the speed of the ejected electron

No electron will be emitted if the incident photon's energy is less than the work function.


Applying Einstein's special theory of relativity, the relation between energy (E) and momentum (p) of a particle is


E = [(pc)2 + (mc2)2](1/2)


where m is the rest mass of the particle and c is the velocity of light in a vacuum.

The rate at which photo-electrons are ejected is directly proportional to the intensity of the incident light, for a given frequency of incident radiation and metal.
The time between the incidence and emission of a photo-electron is very small, less than 10–9 second.
For a given metal, there is a minimum frequency of incident radiation below which the photo electric effect will not occur so no photo-electrons can be emitted (threshold frequency).
Above the threshold frequency, the maximum kinetic energy of the emitted photo electrons depends on the frequency of the incident radiation but is independent of its intensity.
If the incident light is linearly polarized then the directional distribution of emitted electrons will peak in the direction of polarization (the direction of the electric field).

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Digital Clock On LCD (16x2) PIC16F1937 Used In FlowCode Programming and Simulation

In this sample project we are using FlowCode Simulation Software for Programming and Testing with PIC16F1937.It shows how to use and simulate and program LCD for use in different projects.In this Project we have created digital clock(Using two digit each for seconds minute and hours in 24 Hour format on LCD) on 16x2 Liquid Crystal Display.Varying the delay and write-erase sequence can be manipulated to get desired result.

Here is the Flow code program:
LCD(16x2) Display Related Programs
ADC-Voltage as Float(LCD with PIC16F1937)
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INDEX-Tutorials for Flow Code Programming and Simulation

Categorized Topics
We are using Flow Code Simulation Software from MATRIX for Programming and Testing,You will find topics from Flow Code Programming and Simulation.You can request a topic here.If some links are not working please let me know.
Flowcode is one of the world's most advanced graphical programming languages for micro-controllers. The great advantage of Flowcode is that it allows those with little to no programming experience to create complex electronic systems in minutes. Flowcode is available in multiple languages and currently supports the PICmicro, dsPIC, PIC24, AVR/Arduino and ARM series of micro controllers.You can Download the Demo Software HERE.







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Here is the Flow code program:
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Graphical LCD-3D Text Example
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Servo Motors
Here is the Flow code program:
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More related Post :
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Here is the example of using ADC and manipulating the variables for desired results.In this example we are using LCD to display the results of ADC calculation as float values on the LCD as seen in the examples code and videos.

Flow code program:
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Tutorials for Flow Code Programming and Simulation

Micro-controller used is PIC16F88 with 16x2 LCD for printing numbers and then updating them.

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You can Download Flow Code Pr…

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Timed Counter And Use of Timer Interrupt Using PIC16F88 Microcontroller - Flow Code Simulation

Flow Code-Timed Counter And Use of Timer Interrupt(PIC16F88)

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Here is the MACRO for Interrupt Program Code:


Here is the Flow code MAIN program:
Complete list of projects:
Tutorials for Flow Code Programming and Simulation

LCD Interfacing With Keypad PIC16F877A FlowCode Microcontroller Programming And Simulation

In this sample project we are using Programming Software FlowCode for Programming LCD ( Liquid Crystal Display ) With Keypad and Testing And Interfacing with PIC16F877A.It shows how to use and simulate and program Keypad with LCD for use in different projects.In this Project we are testing Keypad and outputting binary values to LCD ( Liquid Crystal Display ).Varying the delay and write-erase sequence can be manipulated to get desired result.

Above is the Flow code program Snapshot:

Recent Related Programs
Keypad and LED Interfacing With PIC16F88

LCD(16x2) Display Related Programs

Voltage as Float(LCD with PIC16F1937)
Voltage as String (LCD with PIC16F1937)
ADC Sampling and outputting to a LCD
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Printing and Updating Number on 16x2 LCD Display
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OutPut On LCD Dispaly And LED Strip is as Given.This data is Further Used for Interfacing in other big and complicated Projects
Keypad LED …

Servo with ADC control input ,Flow Code Simulation

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