### Digital Clock On LCD (16x2) PIC16F1937 Used In FlowCode Programming and Simulation

In this sample project we are using FlowCode Simulation Software for Programming and Testing with PIC16F1937.It shows how to use and simulate and program LCD for use in different projects.In this Project we have created digital clock(Using two digit each for seconds minute and hours in 24 Hour format on LCD) on 16x2 Liquid Crystal Display.Varying the delay and write-erase sequence can be manipulated to get desired result.

Here is the Flow code program:
LCD(16x2) Display Related Programs
ADC-Voltage as String (LCD with PIC16F1937)
ADC Sampling and outputting to a LCD(LCD with PIC16F1937)
Printing Number on 16x2 LCD Display with PIC16F88
Printing and Updating Number on 16x2 LCD Display
Printing a Two line(String) message (LCD 16x2)
Printing a formatted number on ( LCD 16x2 ) Using PIC16F88

LCD (Liquid Crystal Display 16X2):-
Its screen is an electronic display module and find a wide range of applications. A 16x2 LCD display is very basic module and is very…

### Voltage Source and Current Source

Voltage Source:A device which can produce a continuous force to move the electrons (or, continuous voltage) through the wire connected into the two terminals of the device is called a Voltage Source. There are two types of the Voltage Source which are:

Direct Voltage Source:

A device which produces a continuous direct voltage output is called a Direct Voltage Source. For example: Cells , Battery , DC Generator.

Electromotive force (EMF)
Basics Of Electric Current
Body Or Chassis Ground in Electronic Circuits

A direct voltage is the kind of voltage whose polarity remains the same. Direct Voltage causes the current to move only in one direction continuously.

Alternating Voltage Source:

A device which produces a alternating direct voltage output is called a Alternating Voltage Source. For example: AC Generator , DC to AC converter etc.

A alternating voltage is the kind of voltage whose polarity is reversed periodically. Alternating Voltage causes the current to move in one direction for a period and then in another direction for another period.

Ideal Voltage Source:

An Ideal Voltage source is a kind of Voltage source whose internal resistance is zero! Such that the supplied voltage does not changes even if the external load resistance is changes.
Anatomy of a Virtually Ideal (Constant) Voltage Source:

A Voltage source which have zero internal resistance or impedance is called an Ideal or Constant voltage source!

But practically it is not possible. No matter how much efforts are made the voltage source still have a small internal resistance , But a voltage source can be converted into a Virtually Constant Voltage Source by changing the internal materials used in a cell or voltage source such that the internal resistance of the source is minimized.

A practical virtual constant voltage source haves a very low internal impedance (let it be 0.005 ohm or 5 mili Ohm in this case) and the actual circuit diagram of a voltage source looks like:

Current Source:

A current source is a device which provides the regular flow or electrons or current on a circuit.

A current source is a type of voltage source which have enough EMF and surplus electrons so as to produce the flow of electrons.

Direct Current Source:

The current source made of a Direct Voltage Source is called Direct Current Source.

Alternating Current Source:

The current source made of a Alternating Voltage Source is called Alternating Current Source.

Ideal Current Source:

A current source which provides a constant current without any relation with the voltage supplied to the load is called Ideal Current Source.
Anatomy of a Virtually Ideal (Constant) Current Source:

Practically a Ideal Current source is impossible but a circuit can be configured such that when the voltage across the load is changed the supplied current current varies negligibly. A virtual Constant or Ideal current source can be made by adding a very high internal impedance to a Voltage Source.a shown in the figure below:

Conversion of Voltage Source into Current Source and Vice Versa:

Here in the following constant voltage source:

The Internal resistance of the voltage source =

The Open Voltage across the load resistance = V =

And the Short Current across the load resistance = I Short =

Now we need to convert the above Constant voltage current source into a Constant Current Source with Following anatomy:

As we can see in the above constant current source:

the Open Voltage = V =

and also the short current = I Short =

Thus the Open Voltage and Short Current in both circuits is same , thus both circuits are electrically equivalent.

Hence , To convert a Constant Voltage Source into a Constant Current Source we need to follow the following steps.

1. Find the Internal resistance of the Constant Voltage source and place it in parallel with the Voltage source to convert it into a Constant Current Source.
2. Find the Current flowing through the Load in a Voltage source with the Load resistance being short (I = V / R_i) and the Current Provided by the converted constant current source is the same I.

We can also convert a Constant Current Source into a Constant Voltage Source by following Method:
1. Find the resistance parallel of the Constant current source and place it in series with the current source to convert it into a Constant Voltage Source.
2. Find the Open Voltage of the current source ( V = I * R_i) and the voltage provided by the constant voltage source will be the same V.

### Digital Clock On LCD (16x2) PIC16F1937 Used In FlowCode Programming and Simulation

In this sample project we are using FlowCode Simulation Software for Programming and Testing with PIC16F1937.It shows how to use and simulate and program LCD for use in different projects.In this Project we have created digital clock(Using two digit each for seconds minute and hours in 24 Hour format on LCD) on 16x2 Liquid Crystal Display.Varying the delay and write-erase sequence can be manipulated to get desired result.

Here is the Flow code program:
LCD(16x2) Display Related Programs
ADC-Voltage as String (LCD with PIC16F1937)
ADC Sampling and outputting to a LCD(LCD with PIC16F1937)
Printing Number on 16x2 LCD Display with PIC16F88
Printing and Updating Number on 16x2 LCD Display
Printing a Two line(String) message (LCD 16x2)
Printing a formatted number on ( LCD 16x2 ) Using PIC16F88

LCD (Liquid Crystal Display 16X2):-
Its screen is an electronic display module and find a wide range of applications. A 16x2 LCD display is very basic module and is very…

### Motor Types- Special Types of Motor

Motor Types- Special Types of Motor
1. Iron less or core-less rotor motorNothing in the principle of any of the motors described above requires that the iron (steel) portions of the rotor actually rotate. If the soft magnetic material of the rotor is made in the form of a cylinder, then (except for the effect of hysteresis) torque is exerted only on the windings of the electromagnets. Taking advantage of this fact is the core less or iron less DC motor, a specialized form of a PM DC motor. Optimized for rapid acceleration, these motors have a rotor that is constructed without any iron core. The rotor can take the form of a winding-filled cylinder, or a self-supporting structure comprising only the magnet wire and the bonding material. The rotor can fit inside the stator magnets; a magnetically soft stationary cylinder inside the rotor provides a return path for the stator magnetic flux.

### Sending String with PIC16F877A Using Serial RS232 -Flowcode Simulation

Here we are using Flow-code Simulation Software for Programming and Testing with PIC16F877A for Simulation of this project .It shows how to send string and character through serial port.

Flow-code has following facility regarding Serial Communication:
1. Character Sent
3. Character in Queue

Here is the Flow code program:
More Post On Serial Communication
Serial RS232-Simple Echo Send and Receive- PIC16F88
Serial RS232 -String Receivev with PIC16F877A
RS232 and RS485 Comparative Study

In this project we are using LCD display for displaying sent string.Setting used can be seen in the video.We are sending " TechInventory "  and " RS232 Working " string through RS232 Serial port.Micro-controller used is PIC16F877A with 16X2 LCD display.

### INDEX-Tutorials for Flow Code Programming and Simulation

Categorized Topics
We are using Flow Code Simulation Software from MATRIX for Programming and Testing,You will find topics from Flow Code Programming and Simulation.You can request a topic here.If some links are not working please let me know.
Flowcode is one of the world's most advanced graphical programming languages for micro-controllers. The great advantage of Flowcode is that it allows those with little to no programming experience to create complex electronic systems in minutes. Flowcode is available in multiple languages and currently supports the PICmicro, dsPIC, PIC24, AVR/Arduino and ARM series of micro controllers.You can Download the Demo Software HERE.

INDEX
Seven Segment LED Display
Using Seven Segment with PIC16F88Counting using loops(Seven Segment with PIC16F88)Counting switch presses(Seven Segment with PIC16F88)
Timers and Counters
Timed Counter And Use of Timer Interrupt(PIC16F88)
ADC Simulation In Flow CodeServo with ADC control input ,Flow Code Simulati…

### Timed Counter And Use of Timer Interrupt Using PIC16F88 Microcontroller - Flow Code Simulation

Flow Code-Timed Counter And Use of Timer Interrupt(PIC16F88)

In this example of counting seconds using Timed Counter and Timer Interrupt.In this example we are using 7 Segment Display to display the results of calculation as seen in the examples code and videos.

Here is the MACRO for Interrupt Program Code:

Here is the Flow code MAIN program:
Complete list of projects:
Tutorials for Flow Code Programming and Simulation

### Motor Types- DC Motor

Motor Types- DC Motor Shunt DC motor: The rotor and stator windings are connected in parallel.Separately Excited motor: The rotor and stator are each connected from a different power supply, this gives another degree of freedom for controlling the motor over the shunt.Series motor: the stator and rotor windings are connected in series. Thus the torque is proportional to I*I  so it gives the highest torque per current ratio over all other DC motors.It is therefore used in starter motors of cars and elevator motors.For more related information please refer:
Motor Types-Introduction
Motor Types- DC Motor
Motor Types- AC Motor
Motor Types- Special Types of Motor
Servo Motors
Stepper Motor

### Stepper Motors Examples with PIC16F88 -Flowcode Simulation

We are using FlowCode Simulation Software for Programming and Testing with PIC16F88 for Simulation of this project .It shows how to use and simulate and program Stepper Motors for use in different projects.

For concept of Different types of Motors and their properties please see:
Motor Types-Introduction
Motor Types- DC Motor
Motor Types- AC Motor
Motor Types- Special Types of Motor
Servo Motors
Here is the Flow code program:
Three Stepper are used to depict different configurations in which they can be used .Here functionality of auto off capability is used.It can be programmed to moved back to its original position if required.

More related Post :
Stepper motor Control using switches(Flow Code Simulation)
Stepper with switch control- Auto Off with PIC16F88

Here is the complete list of projects:
Tutorials for Flow Code Programming and Simulation

### Fibonacci Series Using Array And For Loop - C Programming Examples

As we have started C Programming coding with Example Series, We have published last posts
"Write A Program For SUM of Infinite HP"

"Write A Program To Find SUM of AP" and

"Write A Program To Find SUM of GP Sequence".

In this post we are doing again Fibonacci Series but with different approach.In last post "Fibonacci Progression Using While Loop" you will see how to generate Fibonacci Numbers by using concepts of  Do-While Loop.In this post we will talk about another loop i.e. For Loop and side by side Concept of Arrays will be discussed and demonstrated.
Fibonacci Series - Sequence ( Using Array And For Loop ) Video Tutorial(See C- Codes Below ):

For Loop Concept: FOR Loops are the most useful type. The syntax for a for loop is  for ( variable init…

### Pulse Width Modulation,Simulation Micro controllers(PIC16F877)

Pulse Width Modulation,Simulation Micro controllers(PIC16F877)
This simulation depicts generation of PWM waves using Flow Code Simulation techniques.It will help to understand how to control speed of DC motor using PWM in controllers.

You may also like :
Stepper motor Control using switches
Pulse Widht Modulation Simulation in Microcontrollers(PIC16F877)

Here is the complete list of projects:
Tutorials for Flow Code Programming and Simulation

Pulse-width modulation (PWM), or pulse-duration modulation (PDM), is a technique used to encode a message into a pulsing signal. It is a type of modulation. Although this modulation technique can be used to encode information for transmission, its main use is to allow the control of the power supplied to electrical devices, especially to inertial loads such as motors. In addition, PWM is one of the two principal algorithms used in photovoltaic solar battery chargers,the other being MPPT.

### Printing a Two line(String) message (LCD 16x2) PIC16F88 FlowCode Programming and Simulation

We have been using FlowCode Simulation Software for Programming and Testing with PIC16F88.It shows how to use and simulate and program LCD for use in different projects.In this Project we are printing two line message on 16x2 LCD Display.In First line "Ingenuity Dias" is continuously displayed and in second line "tech-inventory" is displayed.Varying the delay and write-erase sequence can be manipulated to get desired result.

Here is the Flow code program:
LCD(16x2) Display Related Programs