## Tuesday, 18 February 2014

### Photoelectric Effect - High School Physics Tutorial

The photoelectric effect is the observation that many metals emit electrons when light shines upon them. Electrons emitted in this manner may be called photo electrons.

Overview of the Photoelectric Effect

The photoelectric effect is studied in part because it can be an introduction to wave-particle duality and quantum mechanics.

As shown in video below,when a surface is exposed to sufficiently energetic electromagnetic energy, light will be absorbed and electrons will be emitted. The threshold frequency is different for different materials.

### Transformer Working Principal - High School Physics Tutorial

A transformer and its close relative, the Induction coil, use a B field created by a Primary Coil to induce a current in a Secondary coil through induction. The B field changes as the Primary Current changes.

The link between the Primary and Secondary is strengthened by the use of a laminated iron alloy core ( laminated to reduce eddy currents ) to increase the B field. Further, both Primary and Secondary use multiple windings which dictate the strength of the flux between them. More coils, more area hence more flux.

## Monday, 17 February 2014

### Laws of Resistance and Specific Resistance

Laws of Resistance and Specific Resistance
The laws of resistance states that the Resistance “R” offered by a conductor depends upon following factors:

1. The Resistance “R” is directly proportional with it’s length “L”

2. The Resistance “R” is Inversely proportional with it’s Cross Sectional Area: “A”

Types of Resistors
Resistors Colour Coding
Multimeter: Testing Resistors
Effect of temperature on Resistance Of Materials

### Effect of temperature on Resistance Of Materials

Effect of temperature on Resistance Of Materials

In pure metals the resistance of the substance increases with the increase in it’s temperature. The increase is large and fairly regular for normal ranges of temperature. Or metals have a positive temperature coefficient of resistance.
Types of Resistors
Resistors Colour Coding
Multimeter: Testing Resistors

In alloys also the increase in temperature results in increase of it’s resistance, but unlike pure metals the increase is relatively small and irregular. For some high resistance alloys like Eureka ( Cu 60% & Ni 40%) and maganin , the increase in resistance is ( or can be made) negligible over a considerable range of temperature.

### Basics Of Electric Current - High School Physics Tutorial

Electric Current is the flow of electrons in a substance from it’s one point to another in other words Electric Current is the rate at which the charges or electrons flows through a particular surface or point in a substance for eg. The current in a wire is the rate at which the charges carrying electrons passes through the cross sectional surface of the wire.

Electromotive force (EMF)
Voltage Source and Current Source
Body Or Chassis Ground in Electronic Circuits

The anatomy of a conductor and flow of current:A conductor is usually made up of a lot of molecules piled one over another , and the molecules are collection of atoms. ### Electromotive force (EMF) - High School Physics Tutorial

Electromotive force (EMF) also called Voltage sometimes is the measure energy which causes the flow of current through a circuit or conductor. By definition:

Electromotive Force is the energy per unit charge causing the charge to move through the circuit.

Voltage Source and Current Source
Basics Of Electric Current
Body Or Chassis Ground in Electronic Circuits

By the name Electromotive force might sound like a force ; But EMF is not exactly a force instead it is the measure of Energy or Work done per charge which causes the charge to move around in a circuit as shown in the figure below: What is Potential Difference?

Electric potential is the electric potential energy which tends to move the charge through the circuit and the potential difference (PD) is the difference between the electric potential of two points in a circuit. In any circuit Potential difference between two points is almost equal to the Electromotive force between them , and thee measure of PD is almost same as that of EMF also the both have same units i.e. Volt.

### Voltage Source and Current Source

Voltage Source:A device which can produce a continuous force to move the electrons (or, continuous voltage) through the wire connected into the two terminals of the device is called a Voltage Source. There are two types of the Voltage Source which are:

Direct Voltage Source:

A device which produces a continuous direct voltage output is called a Direct Voltage Source. For example: Cells , Battery , DC Generator.

Electromotive force (EMF)
Basics Of Electric Current
Body Or Chassis Ground in Electronic Circuits

### Body Or Chassis Ground in Electronic Circuits

Body/Chassis
In any circuit or electronics devices the outer cover or framework of the device or the circuit is called the Chassis.

Grounding:
Grounding is the process of determining a Zero Voltage Or Reference Voltage Level point and connecting all other devices to it for a common return path for current.

Voltage Source and Current Source
Basics Of Electric Current

### Zero Voltage Or Reference Voltage Level in Electronic Circuit

Zero Voltage Or Reference Voltage Level The measurement of the Voltage or Electro-Motive Force can only be done with relative to a reference level or reference point.

For example when we say a Battery is of 12 Voltage that means the difference in the Voltage or EMF of the positive terminal to the Reference level which is the negative terminal normally is 12 voltage as shown in the figure above.

Electromotive force (EMF)
Voltage Source and Current Source
Basics Of Electric Current

### Voltage Divider in Electronic Circuit Circuits-Voltage Divider
A Voltage Divider is a circuit or device that divides the total supplied voltage into fractions or parts among the various components or points in the device.

Voltage dividers are normally used to obtain various voltage output from a voltage source , For example in Transistor Biasing , Audio Circuits , Providing power to devices draining small currents etc.

Related Topics:
Circuits-Current Divider

### Current Divider in Electronic Circuit

Circuits-Current Divider

Current Divider is a simple linear circuit or device which divides the total input current to various paths or loads in fractions of the input current.It can be used to divide the input current in fractions to various branches on the device in a certain ratio.

Current Divider Circuit:

A current divider circuit is a circuit which divides the input current to various branches in a certain ratio. A simple arrangement of two or more resistors in parallel can be considered as a current divider Circuit. A current divider circuit contains various impedance in parallel.

## Saturday, 8 February 2014

### Pulse Width Modulation,Simulation Micro controllers(PIC16F877)

This simulation depicts generation of PWM waves using Flow Code Simulation techniques.It will help to understand how to control speed of DC motor using PWM in controllers.

You may also like :

Stepper motor Control using switches
Pulse Widht Modulation Simulation in Microcontrollers(PIC16F877)

Here is the complete list of projects:

Tutorials for Flow Code Programming and Simulation

Pulse-width modulation (PWM), or pulse-duration modulation (PDM), is a technique used to encode a message into a pulsing signal. It is a type of modulation. Although this modulation technique can be used to encode information for transmission, its main use is to allow the control of the power supplied to electrical devices, especially to inertial loads such as motors. In addition, PWM is one of the two principal algorithms used in photovoltaic solar battery chargers,the other being MPPT.

### ADC Simulation In Flow Code

Flow Code for AVR controllers is used here.This software is best for starters as well as for experts for simulation of whole project. In this example we are using LCD to display the results of ADC calculation as float values on the LCD as seen in the examples code and videos.

Here is the complete list of projects:

Tutorials for Flow Code Programming and Simulation

In video you will be able to see stepwise execution of program and their effect on LCD in panel which is by default in the software .

By varying Pot Driver(used as analog sensors to generate signal) we will get different values.

Video Tutorials:

You may also like :
Stepper motor Control using switches
Pulse Widht Modulation Simulation in Microcontrollers(PIC16F877)

### Stepper motor Control using switches(Flow Code Simulation)

Stepper motor Control using switches(Flow Code Simulation)

Controlling Stepper motor using switches is shown here.This simulation is good technique which can be used to detect performance of your stepper beforehand.I have used unipolar configuration for motor which is versatile mode of operation. You may also like :

Stepper motor Control using switches
Pulse Widht Modulation Simulation with Microcontrollers (PIC16F877)

Here is the complete list of projects:
Tutorials for Flow Code Programming and Simulation

## Wednesday, 5 February 2014

### Servo with ADC control input ,Flow Code Simulation

Servo with ADC control input ,Flow Code Simulation

In this simulation we are working with two servo channels as o/p and two ADC channels for input and Output. You may also like :
Stepper motor Control using switches
Pulse Width Modulation Simulation (PIC16F877)

Here is the complete list of projects:

Tutorials for Flow Code Programming and Simulation

### KhodalDham Couple Entry Counting System Design

KhodalDham Couple Entry Counting System Design Maximum No of people doing handshake at KhodhalDham, kagwad. Rajkot,Gujrat,INDIA.

### Dual (+-) 5v Power Supply Unit Proteus Simulation

Dual (+-) 5v Power Supply Unit

PCB in Final Look
Simple  Dual (+-) 5v Power Supply Unit for different projects. Can be used directly with AC main no need for battery.
Circuit diagram

### 5v Power Supply Unit For Beginners - Proteus Simulation

5v Power Supply Unit For Beginners

Whenever someone start any project,first hurdle comes in form of Supply Unit suitable for it.Simple +5v Power Supply Unit for different projects using component available from local market. Can be used directly with AC main no need for battery.

PCB in Final Look Circuit diagram Schematic
Layout
Bill Of Materials

Proteus model available on mail request.

## Tuesday, 4 February 2014

### How to build PCB Part I

Starting the Series for tutorials for PCB Manufacturing and its components required.
Various layers,Drills and materials used for Itching and its process are discussed.

For Second part go here: How to build PCB Part II

### How to build PCB Part II

Second part of the Series for tutorials for PCB Manufacturing and its components required.
Various layers,Drills and materials used for Itching and its process are discussed.

For First part go here: How to build PCB Part I

### RS232 and RS485 Comparative Study - Communication Protocols In Digital Electronics

RS232 and RS485 Comparative Study
RS232 Protocol

RS-232 is the most common serial interface and ships as a standard component on most Windows-compatible desktop computers. RS-232 only allows for one transmitter and one receiver on each line. RS-232 also uses a Full-Duplex transmission method

In Short:

1. Unbalanced / non-differential (all same terms)
2. Point to point
3. No. of Drivers = 1
5. Full duplex (so it can be half duplex also)
6. Distance (Standard) = 15m
7. Receiver input sensitivity( a valid signal) = +-3V
8. Max speed at 12m = 20kbps

## Sunday, 2 February 2014

### Proteus LED Test I

Proteus LED Test I

This tutorial shows you how to create circuits in Proteus Isis, simulate them and then create PCB with Proteus.

Proteus is software for microprocessor simulation, schematic capture, and printed circuit board (PCB) design. It is developed by Lab center Electronics.

### Proteus LED Test II

Proteus LED Test II

Led Test Circuit Simulation in Proteus Software and programming in Keil Software.In first part circuit making is shown and in second part programming and simulation is shown.

### NOT Logic Gate - Boolean Algebra in Digital Electronics - Proteus Simulation

The NOT gate is an electronic circuit that produces an inverted version of the input at its output. It is also known as an inverter.

If the input variable is A, the inverted output is known as NOT A. This is also shown as A', or A with a bar over the top, as shown at the outputs. Logic Gates- AND Gate
Logic Gates- OR Gate
Logic Gates- NAND Gate
Logic Gates- NOR Gate

### OR Logic Gate - Boolean Algebra in Digital Electronics - Proteus Simulation

The OR gate is an electronic circuit that gives a high output (1) if one or more of its inputs are high. A plus (+) is used to show the OR operation.

Logic Table The AND gate is an electronic circuit that gives a high output (1) only if all its inputs are high. A dot (.) is used to show the AND operation i.e. A.B. Bear in mind that this dot is sometimes omitted i.e. AB